Leucemia - simptome, diagnosticare si tratament

Leukemia - Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

At first you feel tired and ignorant, putting everything under stress, then start to get dizzy, you are getting weaker and the colds are more frequent and more aggressive. That's how leukemia starts, a disease whose causes are not fully understood by doctors. Once you receive your blood tests, you get certain questions and questions, because the diagnosis of leukemia is not so easy.

Complex analyzes are required, many doctors' visits, many interventions, because infections are much easier in your weakened immune system - this in Romania, according to the site CSID.ro.

In other countries, specialists have a well-established protocol, know exactly how to proceed, what analyzes to ask and where to send the patient to get the treatment as soon as possible. And the patient has another mentality: he goes to the doctor as soon as he notices that something is wrong, he does not wait until the last moment, he does not care for his ear and does not care about the money that needs to enter the right pockets. But this is a long discussion and will find its place at some point.

Our guide is Prof. Univ. Dr. Paul Knobl, MD at the Medical University of Vienna, an expert haematologist at the Oncology Center at Vienna Private Hospital.

Prof. Dr. Knobl: Leukemia is installed when there are too many white blood cells in the blood, in other words, the spinal cord produces too many leukocytes. In many cases, these cells reach the blood, but there are cases where these cells stick to the bone marrow and replace the remaining healthy ones. In a laboratory analysis, we can see the opposite: the leukocyte level is normal or even very small.

Until now, chronic and acute leukemia have been diagnosed. Depending on how affected the bone marrow is, they are divided into: myeloid leukemia, lymphoid s.a.m.d, but also in leukemia with mature or immature cells. The most common types are: lymphocytic leukemia (represents 30-40% of all forms of leukemia), chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. At the opposite end, the most rare types are hair cell leukemia and plasma leukemia (2-4%).

Prof. Dr. Knobl: We can see that something is wrong and we should consult a doctor as soon as one or more of the following occurs:

  • anemia (low red blood cells or red blood cells) that gives a state of weakness, difficulty breathing, palpitations and very fast pulse;
  • thrombocytopenia (low platelet or blood platelets) that causes bleeding, most of the skin or nose;
  • infections, feverishness or gingival infections caused by the low level of healthy white cells.

In some cases of leukemia, other signs for a correct diagnosis would be the elevated and abnormal dimensions of the liver, spleen or lymph nodes. You have to ask your doctor if you feel an unexplained weakness, breathing is difficult, night sweats appear, the face is pale, you have fever that does not decrease even with antibiotics, lymph nodes are enlarged or there are abnormalities of the gums. At this point, you should go to the doctor for a set of blood tests.

The first step in diagnosis is given by blood testing - cell counting and even differential blood analysis (white cell count - number, shape, etc.). If the values are normal, there is little chance of talking about leukemia. But if abnormalities occur, the recommendation is to go to a haematologist.

Prof. Dr. Knobl: Chronic leukemia progresses slowly, so it may be delayed in a few days to examine the spinal cord. However, for acute leukemias, diagnosis and treatment are needed as quickly as patients can die within a few days due to very serious infections, brain bleeding or organ failure.

Prof. Dr. Knobl: There is a wide range of therapies for each type of leukemia, but a personalized treatment is required, closely related to the patient's history, because each individual has a specific leukemia disease. We can not speak of a common procedure for all types of leukemia. For example, lymphocytic leukemia - you can live with this condition many years without the need for therapy. Regarding chronic myelogenous leukemia, it is treated with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors in the form of pills to be taken for many years.

However, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the main treatment for acute leukemia, sometimes even in association with stem cell transplantation. Treatment strategies, as well as new molecules appear more and more, studies are conducted even at this time. Therefore, there is a need for well-thought-out oncology centers, not only with oncology specialists, but also from the rest of the medical disciplines to address the patient individually, such as the Vienna Private Hospital (WPK) Oncology Center.

Prof. Dr. Knobl: Immunotherapy with antibodies targeting diseased cells is now part of several treatment strategies. New forms of immuno-oncological treatments (eg immune system inhibitors) are still available only to treat certain forms of leukemia, but this can change. With regard to stem cell transplantation, I can say that it is the result of a multitude of factors and it is never an easy decision to take, because of the very complex and expensive logistics, but especially the very high risks for the patients' lives.

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Medipol University Hospital is the Turkey’s largest private health investment as a university hospital incorporating General, Cardiovascular Surgery, Oncology and Dental hospitals, Medipol University Hospital attracts attention with its modern architecture intelligent building technology and advanced medical equipment and bears the distinction of being one of Turkey’s best hospitals with a new generation of technology. Medipol University Hospital, is a new reference center in the health sector in both national and international arenas. Medipol University Hospital, being the justifiably proud of Medipol Education and Health Group in Turkey and in the world, resulting in this spirit, is a health complex having JCI standards accepting patients from all over the world. Medipol University Hospital takes firm steps forward with the big investments and advances in preventive / curative health services to improve the community’s quality of life. Medipol University Hospital has capacity of 470 beds 133-bed Intensive Care Units (General, Coronary, CVC, Neonatal Intensive Care) all serving with an infrastructure equipped with intelligent systems and technology. Medipol University Hospital , having the highest number of departments within the hospitals in Turkey, presents patient-centered superior service approach. The hospital is also is configured with a new generation of technology being capable of performing simultaneous operations in 25 operating rooms. Away from the usual hospita architecture, Medipol University Hospital is a complex which may become an example in the world with its “Healing Hospital Architecture” and original scape in order to make patients and their relatives feel better. Medipol University Hospital has 15 acres of gardens, 26 thousand square meters of 5 storey under ground car park, 100 thousand square meters of indoor area and 1,500 people of employment capacity. Holding the comfort and convenience of the patients at the forefront, Medipol University Hospital host patients and their relatives in the comfort of home environment. There are totally 470 beds involving spacious and modern physical areas, terrace garden suites, suites and normal rooms. Patients can benefit from multimedia services (TV, DVD, internet) in rooms equipped with LCD screen . In addition to the any kind of comfort of modern life that the patient and their relatives may need, a high – quality meal service is also supplied.

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It is an internationally accredited health care group located in the central part of Turkey, with preponderance in the beautiful city of Istanbul. 

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Spitalul Acibadem Altunizade

An institution that fueled dozens of worthwhile projects in Turkey, Anadolu Foundation made another dream real by founding Anadolu Medical Center. Relying on the valuable heritage of Anatolia that boasts of thousands of years of medical knowledge and was home to many valuable people of medicine, our hospital uses this knowledge to contribute to human health. Working in strategic cooperation with Johns Hopkins Medicine for the improvement of education and quality, our hospital provides services in all branches including in particular, oncologic sciences, cardiovascular health, gynecology and IVF, neurological sciences, surgical sciences, internal medicine, diagnosis and imaging. Established on an area of 188.000 square meters and an indoor area of 50 thousand square meters with a capacity of 201 beds, our hospital provides services with JCI (Joint Commission International) accreditation, ESMO (European Society for Medical Oncology), ISO (18001, 14001 and 9001) certifications. Anadolu Medical Center continues to provide healthcare services also at Ataşehir with its Outpatient Clinic. Procedural archives of patients who receive services at the Outpatient Clinic are kept in the virtual environment. Having started to render service in June 2010 within the structure of the hospital, the Bone Marrow Transplantation Center performs bone marrow transplants for 22 patients at the same time. Our patients are always the number one priority at our hospital. For this reason, we give value to the needs and expectations of our patients, and make every effort to ensure that they have a peaceful treatment process and feel at home.

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Hisar Hospital Intercontinental based in İstanbul, is one of the nation’s largest and most comprehensive private hospitals, with offers highest quality diagnosis and treatment in the most comfortable, safe and patient oriented environments, employing the latest and best medical technologies.

The Hospital was founded on closed area of 35,000 square meters and it offers services in Ümraniye, İstanbul. That is only 20 minutes to Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, 5 minutes to Bosphorus and at the joint of the continents, Asia and Europe. It’s aimed to supply the patient satisfaction at the highest level with its diagnosis and treatment units using advanced medical technology. With 170 patient bed capacity and 7 operating rooms where all kinds of specialized operations including Cardiovascular Surgery can be carried out and a total of 36 Intensive Care beds that can provide special care to each patient in single rooms. 

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Israel's Herzliya Medical Center (HMC) is a state-of-the-art medical institution offering a wide range of medical services to all international peacekeeping organizations in Israel: UNDOF, UN, UNIFIL, UNTSO & MFO. 

Herzliya Medical Center cooperates with organizations in the U.S. and other organizations worldwide since 1984. The latter have chosen to cooperate with the Herzliya Medical Center for the latest generation of medical services including: state-of-the-art diagnostic facilities, modern laboratories, advanced imaging institutes, reputable physicians and highly trained surgeons , exclusive hospitalization standards, first class rehabilitation services. 

Since 1999, U.N. and UNDOF chose the private hospital at Herzliya Medical Center (HMC), Israel's first healthcare provider. The assessment includes the level of medical assistance provided, physician qualifications, operating room standards, and intensive care unit. Herzliya Medical Center is located in Herzliya, an attractive seaside town with a stunning beach. The convenient location of the hospital allows employees in U.N. to arrive in southern and northern Israel in a few hours.

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A symbol of excellence in medicine, Liv Hospital Istanbul combines the quality of care services with the high level of training of the team experienced by specialists, surgeons and nurses.
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Wiener Privatklinik, the largest private hospital in Vienna, dating back to 1871, set the goal of providing patients with first-class medical expertise and an individualized care center for patients – all delivered in a sophisticated ambience. Due to the proximity of the University Hospital, WPK is the seat of the most renowned medical experts who teach and practice at the University Clinics. This guarantees our patients evidence-based services, state-of-the-art technology and personalized care. The hospital has 145 beds, an operator block with 4 operating rooms, advanced imaging services (the only private hospital in Vienna with PET CT and nuclear medicine), physiotherapy and medical recovery at international standards. The medical team consists of over 250 reputable Viennese experts who apply an interdisciplinary approach to each case.

wiener privatklinik 2

Assuta is Israel’s largest and leading private medical services center, comprising eleven clinics and hospitals across Israel and providing innovative surgeries and diagnostic procedures in all fields of medicine, including cardiology, oncology, gynecology, urology and more. Assuta Hospital in Tel-Aviv was established in 1934, and over the past 70 years has become renowned as the most advanced hospital in the Middle East. Assuta specialists and surgeons undergo a thorough selection process, which means at Assuta you can expect the highest medical and professional standards. Assuta employs the latest cutting-edge technologies both from Israel and abroad. Our senior physicians possess solid experience in the implementation of modern technologies and techniques, so you have a choice of the most advanced treatment that is suitable for you. The use of modern technologies, devices and prosthetic materials minimizes both the duration of the surgery and the recovery period, adding further to the patient’s quality of life.
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