Hepatita A: cauze, simptome, tratament - PlusMedical

Hepatita A este o infectie hepatica cauzata cel mai adesea de un virus care contamineaza apa potabila sau alimentele. Hepatita A poate fi neplacuta, dar de regula nu reprezinta o afectiune cu adevarat serioasa si majoritatea oamenilor se recupereaza complet in decursul catorva luni.

Unii oameni, in special copii mici, pot sa nu aiba simptome, insa hepatita A poate dura uneori timp de mai multe luni si in cazuri rare, poate pune in pericol viata daca organismul inceteaza sa mai functioneze corespunzator (insuficienta hepatica).

Hepatita A este cea mai raspandita in anumite parti ale lumii, unde standardele de igiena si igiena alimentara sunt in general sarace, cum ar fi parti din Africa, subcontinentul indian, Orientul Indepartat, Orientul Mijlociu, America Centrala si America de Sud.
Putem obtine infectia astfel:
• consumand alimente preparate de cineva cu infectie care nu si-a spalat mainile in mod corespunzator sau le-a spalat in apa contaminata din canalizare
• consumul de apa contaminata (inclusiv cuburi de gheata)
• consumul crustaceelor crude sau provenite din apa contaminata
• contactul apropiat cu cineva care are hepatita A
• mai putin frecvent, contacul sexual cu o persoana care are infectia (acest lucru prezinta un risc deosebit pentru barbatii homosexuali)
• injectarea de droguri folosind ace contaminate

Simptomele pot include:
• senzatie de oboseala si stare generala de rau
• dureri articulare si musculare
• temperatura ridicata (febra)
• pierderea poftei de mancare
• durere in partea superioara dreapta a burtii
• ingalbenirea pielii si a ochilor (icter)
• urina de culoare intunecata si scaune moi
• piele iritata
Simptomele vor trece, de obicei, in cateva luni. Hepatita A nu este de obicei o boala grava, dar in cazuri rare, poate determina stoparea functionarii corecte a ficatului (insuficienta hepatica). In plus fata de simptomele de mai sus, semnele de insuficienta hepatica pot include:
• varsaturi bruste si grave
• tendinta corpului de a se invineti si sangera extrem de repede (de exemplu, sangerari nazale frecvente sau sangerari ale gingiilor)
• iritabilitate
• probleme cu memoria si concentrarea
• somnolenta si confuzie
Consulta medicul daca:
• ai simptome de hepatita A – un test de sange poate de obicei sa confirme daca ai infectia
• s-ar putea sa fi fost recent expus virusului hepatitei A, dar nu ai nici un simptom – tratamentul administrat mai devreme poate fi capabil sa opreasca infectia in curs de dezvoltare
• crezi ca ai putea avea nevoie de vaccinul impotriva hepatitei A – medicul de familie te poate sfatui cu privire la aceasa decizie
Desi hepatita A nu este de obicei grava, este important sa se obtina un diagnostic adecvat pentru a exclude afectiuni mai grave cu simptome similare, cum ar fi hepatita C sau ciroza (cicatrizarea ficatului).
De asemenea, poate fi necesar ca prietenii, familia si partenerii sexuali sa se testeze in prealabil, pentru a fi siguri ca nu s-a raspandit infectia.

• Ai grija sa te asiguri ca beneficiezi de suficienta odihna, in special in stadiile initiale ale infectiei, pentru ca probabil te vei simti foarte obosit.
• Ia analgezice, cum ar fi paracetamolul sau ibuprofenul daca ai dureri si dureri – adreseaza-te medicului tau pentru sfaturi.
• Mancarimile pot fi reduse prin mentinerea unui mediu rece, bine ventilat.
• Consuma alimente in cantitati mai mici si mai usoare pentru a ajuta la reducerea greturilor si a varsaturilor – consulta medicul pentru prescrierea unui medicament impotriva varsaturilor, daca problema persista.
• Evita consumul de alcool – consumul de alcool poate determina cresterea tulpinii suplimentare pe ficat, asa ca cel mai bine ar fi sa eviti consumul de alcool pana cand doctorul iti poate spune ca esti siguranta.
In cazul majoritatii oamenilor, hepatita A va trece in decursul a aproximativ doua luni si nu vor exista efecte pe termen lung. Odata ce acesta trece, in mod normal, se va dezvolta in organism imunitate pe toata durata vietii impotriva virusului. Pentru aproximativ 1 din 7 persoane care sufera de infectie, simptomele pot sa dureze pana la 6 luni inainte de a trece definitiv in cele din urma.
Complicatiile care ameninta viata, cum ar fi insuficienta hepatica, sunt rare, afectand mai putin de 1 din 250 de persoane cu hepatita A. Persoanele cele mai expuse riscului includ persoanele cu probleme hepatice preexistente si persoanele in varsta.
Daca apare insuficienta hepatica, de obicei este nevoie de un transplant de ficat pentru tratarea acesteia.

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Medipol University Hospital is the Turkey’s largest private health investment as a university hospital incorporating General, Cardiovascular Surgery, Oncology and Dental hospitals, Medipol University Hospital attracts attention with its modern architecture intelligent building technology and advanced medical equipment and bears the distinction of being one of Turkey’s best hospitals with a new generation of technology. Medipol University Hospital, is a new reference center in the health sector in both national and international arenas. Medipol University Hospital, being the justifiably proud of Medipol Education and Health Group in Turkey and in the world, resulting in this spirit, is a health complex having JCI standards accepting patients from all over the world. Medipol University Hospital takes firm steps forward with the big investments and advances in preventive / curative health services to improve the community’s quality of life. Medipol University Hospital has capacity of 470 beds 133-bed Intensive Care Units (General, Coronary, CVC, Neonatal Intensive Care) all serving with an infrastructure equipped with intelligent systems and technology. Medipol University Hospital , having the highest number of departments within the hospitals in Turkey, presents patient-centered superior service approach. The hospital is also is configured with a new generation of technology being capable of performing simultaneous operations in 25 operating rooms. Away from the usual hospita architecture, Medipol University Hospital is a complex which may become an example in the world with its “Healing Hospital Architecture” and original scape in order to make patients and their relatives feel better. Medipol University Hospital has 15 acres of gardens, 26 thousand square meters of 5 storey under ground car park, 100 thousand square meters of indoor area and 1,500 people of employment capacity. Holding the comfort and convenience of the patients at the forefront, Medipol University Hospital host patients and their relatives in the comfort of home environment. There are totally 470 beds involving spacious and modern physical areas, terrace garden suites, suites and normal rooms. Patients can benefit from multimedia services (TV, DVD, internet) in rooms equipped with LCD screen . In addition to the any kind of comfort of modern life that the patient and their relatives may need, a high – quality meal service is also supplied.

Acibadem Healthcare Group, Turkey's first-ever healthcare institution, has been providing quality medical services since 1991 with state-of-the-art technology. 

Acibadem has nearly 12,000 employees, of whom 2,200 are physicians, in various locations in the network of 22 general hospitals, 19 medical centers and central laboratories. 

It is an internationally accredited health care group located in the central part of Turkey, with preponderance in the beautiful city of Istanbul. 

Acibadem, which, through its current investments, is continuously expanding its health care institutions, has reached a total of 85 operating rooms and a capacity of 2,200 hospital beds in 400,000 square meters.

Spitalul Acibadem Altunizade

An institution that fueled dozens of worthwhile projects in Turkey, Anadolu Foundation made another dream real by founding Anadolu Medical Center. Relying on the valuable heritage of Anatolia that boasts of thousands of years of medical knowledge and was home to many valuable people of medicine, our hospital uses this knowledge to contribute to human health. Working in strategic cooperation with Johns Hopkins Medicine for the improvement of education and quality, our hospital provides services in all branches including in particular, oncologic sciences, cardiovascular health, gynecology and IVF, neurological sciences, surgical sciences, internal medicine, diagnosis and imaging. Established on an area of 188.000 square meters and an indoor area of 50 thousand square meters with a capacity of 201 beds, our hospital provides services with JCI (Joint Commission International) accreditation, ESMO (European Society for Medical Oncology), ISO (18001, 14001 and 9001) certifications. Anadolu Medical Center continues to provide healthcare services also at Ataşehir with its Outpatient Clinic. Procedural archives of patients who receive services at the Outpatient Clinic are kept in the virtual environment. Having started to render service in June 2010 within the structure of the hospital, the Bone Marrow Transplantation Center performs bone marrow transplants for 22 patients at the same time. Our patients are always the number one priority at our hospital. For this reason, we give value to the needs and expectations of our patients, and make every effort to ensure that they have a peaceful treatment process and feel at home.

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Hisar Hospital Intercontinental based in İstanbul, is one of the nation’s largest and most comprehensive private hospitals, with offers highest quality diagnosis and treatment in the most comfortable, safe and patient oriented environments, employing the latest and best medical technologies.

The Hospital was founded on closed area of 35,000 square meters and it offers services in Ümraniye, İstanbul. That is only 20 minutes to Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, 5 minutes to Bosphorus and at the joint of the continents, Asia and Europe. It’s aimed to supply the patient satisfaction at the highest level with its diagnosis and treatment units using advanced medical technology. With 170 patient bed capacity and 7 operating rooms where all kinds of specialized operations including Cardiovascular Surgery can be carried out and a total of 36 Intensive Care beds that can provide special care to each patient in single rooms. 

Since 1992, Medicana Health Group sustains its progression on the way to determine the standards of future healthcare services. Today, Medicana Health Group, which carries on its activities especially in Istanbul and Ankara, constantly provides the most advanced healthcare services in all aspects of health in Konya, Samsun, Sivas and Bursa through its 13 hospitals and 6500 employees on average. Medicana Health Group not only pioneered the development of health tourism in our country, it also became one of the important centers in treatment of international patients in multidisciplinary healthcare. In order to provide sustainable healthcare services, many offices have been established at important locations of the world.

Israel's Herzliya Medical Center (HMC) is a state-of-the-art medical institution offering a wide range of medical services to all international peacekeeping organizations in Israel: UNDOF, UN, UNIFIL, UNTSO & MFO. 

Herzliya Medical Center cooperates with organizations in the U.S. and other organizations worldwide since 1984. The latter have chosen to cooperate with the Herzliya Medical Center for the latest generation of medical services including: state-of-the-art diagnostic facilities, modern laboratories, advanced imaging institutes, reputable physicians and highly trained surgeons , exclusive hospitalization standards, first class rehabilitation services. 

Since 1999, U.N. and UNDOF chose the private hospital at Herzliya Medical Center (HMC), Israel's first healthcare provider. The assessment includes the level of medical assistance provided, physician qualifications, operating room standards, and intensive care unit. Herzliya Medical Center is located in Herzliya, an attractive seaside town with a stunning beach. The convenient location of the hospital allows employees in U.N. to arrive in southern and northern Israel in a few hours.

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A symbol of excellence in medicine, Liv Hospital Istanbul combines the quality of care services with the high level of training of the team experienced by specialists, surgeons and nurses.
The center has the most advanced methods of diagnosis and treatment, using the latest equipment and technology.

Wiener Privatklinik, the largest private hospital in Vienna, dating back to 1871, set the goal of providing patients with first-class medical expertise and an individualized care center for patients – all delivered in a sophisticated ambience. Due to the proximity of the University Hospital, WPK is the seat of the most renowned medical experts who teach and practice at the University Clinics. This guarantees our patients evidence-based services, state-of-the-art technology and personalized care. The hospital has 145 beds, an operator block with 4 operating rooms, advanced imaging services (the only private hospital in Vienna with PET CT and nuclear medicine), physiotherapy and medical recovery at international standards. The medical team consists of over 250 reputable Viennese experts who apply an interdisciplinary approach to each case.

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Assuta is Israel’s largest and leading private medical services center, comprising eleven clinics and hospitals across Israel and providing innovative surgeries and diagnostic procedures in all fields of medicine, including cardiology, oncology, gynecology, urology and more. Assuta Hospital in Tel-Aviv was established in 1934, and over the past 70 years has become renowned as the most advanced hospital in the Middle East. Assuta specialists and surgeons undergo a thorough selection process, which means at Assuta you can expect the highest medical and professional standards. Assuta employs the latest cutting-edge technologies both from Israel and abroad. Our senior physicians possess solid experience in the implementation of modern technologies and techniques, so you have a choice of the most advanced treatment that is suitable for you. The use of modern technologies, devices and prosthetic materials minimizes both the duration of the surgery and the recovery period, adding further to the patient’s quality of life.
Spitalul Assuta din Tel-Aviv a fost infiintat in 1934, iar in ultimii 70 de ani a devenit renumit ca fiind cel mai avansat spital din Orientul Mijlociu.

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