Cancer renal: simptome, cauze, tratament, preventie - PlusMedical

Kidney or kidney cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in both women and men. According to the latest statistics from the American Cancer Society, kidney cancer affects 63,340 people, women and men. Of these, almost 15,000 die as a result of the late detection of the disease and the treatment that no longer has its effect. For reasons still unknown, men are twice as likely to develop this form of cancer.

Many cases of renal cancer are detected before metastasis, but there are also situations when the diagnosis is established only when the tumors extend to several organs. This is because the symptoms may be completely absent, even in cases where the tumor is large.
Even if early stage kidney cancer is absent or very vague, large tumors can give symptoms such as:
Blood in the urine (hematuria)
Low back pain
A knot or a bulge in the lumbar area
Fatigue or exhaustion
Lack of appetite
Unjustified weight loss
Vision disorders
Excess body hair (especially for women)
Such symptoms are specific to other conditions, not being typical exclusively for kidney cancer. For example, hematuria can be a sign of a urinary tract infection or kidney stones.

Renal cancer is mainly caused by changes in cellular DNA. Certain genes can prevent these abnormalities (tumor suppressor genes - antioncogenes), while others help in the development and reproduction of tumor cells (oncogenic genes). Certain hereditary disorders can disrupt the activity of antioncogen genes, thus causing changes in the structure of cellular DNA:
Hippel-Lindau disease (anomalcogene VHL gene abnormality)
Leiomyoma (anomaly of the FH antioncogene gene)
Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome (FCLN antioncogene gene abnormality)
Familial kidney cancer (abnormality of antioncogenic SDHB or SDHD genes)
Genetic testing can help detect these abnormalities. If you have a history of kidney cancer, it is advisable to do these tests, even if you have no symptoms.
Cellular DNA can also change throughout life. There are certain factors that can increase the risk of biological abnormalities, such as:
Exposure to cigarette smoke or other toxic substances
Abuse of non-steroidal analgesic, diuretic, antipyretic or anti-inflammatory drugs
Untreated hypertension
Chronic kidney disease
Race and sex (kidney cancer is more common among African-American men)
Cowden syndrome (characterized by PTEN gene abnormality, which may increase the risk of breast, thyroid or kidney cancer)
Tuberous sclerosis

The diagnosis of renal cancer is established on the basis of physical examination, but also of additional blood or imaging tests. If the patient has symptoms specific to kidney cancer, the doctor will note them and evaluate the doctor's history, as well as possible risk factors, such as obesity or smoking. If physical examination suggests the possibility of renal cancer, additional tests will be required, such as:
Blood and / or urine tests
Computed tomography (CT)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Ultrasound scan
Positron emission tomography (PET)
Intravenous pelography (excretory urography) with contrast substance
Radiografie toracica (daca se supecteaza metastaze la nivelul plamanilor)
Scintigrafia osoasa (daca se suspecteaza metastaze la nivelul oaselor)
Punctie biopsie renala
In functie de rezultatele obtinute, medicul urolog, oncolog sau radiolog va stabili planul de tratament, dar numai dupa stadializarea bolii. Cancerul renal se imparte in 4 categorii, in functie de gravitate:
Stadiul I – tumora este localizata in rinichi si nu depaseste 7 centimetri
Stadiul II – tumora este localizata in rinichi, dar depaseste 7 centimetri
Stadiul III – tumora s-a extins la nivelul ganglionilor limfatici, in vasele de sange sau in tesuturile periferice
Stadiul IV – tumora s-a extins si la alte organe (intestin, pancreas, plamani)
Rata de supravietuire depinde de stadiul in care este descoperita boala, dar si de anumiti factori de risc, cum ar fi nivelul calciului din sange, al celulelor rosii, deficitul de lactat dehidrogenaza (LDH), precum si de starea generala de sanatate a pacientului sau de afectiunile asociate.

Echipa de medici care stabileste si pune in aplicare tratamentul cancerului renal trebuie sa fie una multidisciplinara. In aceasta sunt implicati, de regula, un medic urolog, un oncolog, un radiolog, un nutritionist, dar si un psiholog. Toti acestia au partea lor de actiune in ceea ce priveste succesul tratamentului cancerului renal.
Exista 5 tratamente standard pentru cancerul renal, in functie de stadiul acestuia.
Ablatia chirurgicala (nefrectomia partiala sau totala)
Chimioterapia (oral sau intravenos)
Terapiile biologice (imunoterapia) – consta in stimularea sistemului imunitar cu ajutorul inhibitorilor
Terapia tintita – consta in administrarea anumitor medicamente in functie de mutatia genetica suferita de celulele maligne.

Echipa de medici care stabileste si pune in aplicare tratamentul cancerului renal trebuie sa fie una multidisciplinara. In aceasta sunt implicati, de regula, un medic urolog, un oncolog, un radiolog, un nutritionist, dar si un psiholog. Toti acestia au partea lor de actiune in ceea ce priveste succesul tratamentului cancerului renal.
Exista 5 tratamente standard pentru cancerul renal, in functie de stadiul acestuia.
Ablatia chirurgicala (nefrectomia partiala sau totala)
Chimioterapia (oral sau intravenos)
Terapiile biologice (imunoterapia) – consta in stimularea sistemului imunitar cu ajutorul inhibitorilor
Terapia tintita – consta in administrarea anumitor medicamente in functie de mutatia genetica suferita de celulele maligne

Chiar daca anumite forme de cancer renal sunt ereditare, deci mostenite de la unul dintre parinti, exista cateva metode prin riscul acestei maladii poate fi scazut, mai ales daca este cauzat de anomalii genetice dobandite. Acestea constau in: renuntarea la fumat, mentinerea unei greutati normale, tinerea sub control a tensiunii arteriale si evitarea mediilor toxice.

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Medipol University Hospital is the Turkey’s largest private health investment as a university hospital incorporating General, Cardiovascular Surgery, Oncology and Dental hospitals, Medipol University Hospital attracts attention with its modern architecture intelligent building technology and advanced medical equipment and bears the distinction of being one of Turkey’s best hospitals with a new generation of technology. Medipol University Hospital, is a new reference center in the health sector in both national and international arenas. Medipol University Hospital, being the justifiably proud of Medipol Education and Health Group in Turkey and in the world, resulting in this spirit, is a health complex having JCI standards accepting patients from all over the world. Medipol University Hospital takes firm steps forward with the big investments and advances in preventive / curative health services to improve the community’s quality of life. Medipol University Hospital has capacity of 470 beds 133-bed Intensive Care Units (General, Coronary, CVC, Neonatal Intensive Care) all serving with an infrastructure equipped with intelligent systems and technology. Medipol University Hospital , having the highest number of departments within the hospitals in Turkey, presents patient-centered superior service approach. The hospital is also is configured with a new generation of technology being capable of performing simultaneous operations in 25 operating rooms. Away from the usual hospita architecture, Medipol University Hospital is a complex which may become an example in the world with its “Healing Hospital Architecture” and original scape in order to make patients and their relatives feel better. Medipol University Hospital has 15 acres of gardens, 26 thousand square meters of 5 storey under ground car park, 100 thousand square meters of indoor area and 1,500 people of employment capacity. Holding the comfort and convenience of the patients at the forefront, Medipol University Hospital host patients and their relatives in the comfort of home environment. There are totally 470 beds involving spacious and modern physical areas, terrace garden suites, suites and normal rooms. Patients can benefit from multimedia services (TV, DVD, internet) in rooms equipped with LCD screen . In addition to the any kind of comfort of modern life that the patient and their relatives may need, a high – quality meal service is also supplied.

Acibadem Healthcare Group, Turkey's first-ever healthcare institution, has been providing quality medical services since 1991 with state-of-the-art technology. 

Acibadem has nearly 12,000 employees, of whom 2,200 are physicians, in various locations in the network of 22 general hospitals, 19 medical centers and central laboratories. 

It is an internationally accredited health care group located in the central part of Turkey, with preponderance in the beautiful city of Istanbul. 

Acibadem, which, through its current investments, is continuously expanding its health care institutions, has reached a total of 85 operating rooms and a capacity of 2,200 hospital beds in 400,000 square meters.

Spitalul Acibadem Altunizade

An institution that fueled dozens of worthwhile projects in Turkey, Anadolu Foundation made another dream real by founding Anadolu Medical Center. Relying on the valuable heritage of Anatolia that boasts of thousands of years of medical knowledge and was home to many valuable people of medicine, our hospital uses this knowledge to contribute to human health. Working in strategic cooperation with Johns Hopkins Medicine for the improvement of education and quality, our hospital provides services in all branches including in particular, oncologic sciences, cardiovascular health, gynecology and IVF, neurological sciences, surgical sciences, internal medicine, diagnosis and imaging. Established on an area of 188.000 square meters and an indoor area of 50 thousand square meters with a capacity of 201 beds, our hospital provides services with JCI (Joint Commission International) accreditation, ESMO (European Society for Medical Oncology), ISO (18001, 14001 and 9001) certifications. Anadolu Medical Center continues to provide healthcare services also at Ataşehir with its Outpatient Clinic. Procedural archives of patients who receive services at the Outpatient Clinic are kept in the virtual environment. Having started to render service in June 2010 within the structure of the hospital, the Bone Marrow Transplantation Center performs bone marrow transplants for 22 patients at the same time. Our patients are always the number one priority at our hospital. For this reason, we give value to the needs and expectations of our patients, and make every effort to ensure that they have a peaceful treatment process and feel at home.

Anadolu Medical Center

Hisar Hospital Intercontinental based in İstanbul, is one of the nation’s largest and most comprehensive private hospitals, with offers highest quality diagnosis and treatment in the most comfortable, safe and patient oriented environments, employing the latest and best medical technologies.

The Hospital was founded on closed area of 35,000 square meters and it offers services in Ümraniye, İstanbul. That is only 20 minutes to Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, 5 minutes to Bosphorus and at the joint of the continents, Asia and Europe. It’s aimed to supply the patient satisfaction at the highest level with its diagnosis and treatment units using advanced medical technology. With 170 patient bed capacity and 7 operating rooms where all kinds of specialized operations including Cardiovascular Surgery can be carried out and a total of 36 Intensive Care beds that can provide special care to each patient in single rooms. 

Since 1992, Medicana Health Group sustains its progression on the way to determine the standards of future healthcare services. Today, Medicana Health Group, which carries on its activities especially in Istanbul and Ankara, constantly provides the most advanced healthcare services in all aspects of health in Konya, Samsun, Sivas and Bursa through its 13 hospitals and 6500 employees on average. Medicana Health Group not only pioneered the development of health tourism in our country, it also became one of the important centers in treatment of international patients in multidisciplinary healthcare. In order to provide sustainable healthcare services, many offices have been established at important locations of the world.

Israel's Herzliya Medical Center (HMC) is a state-of-the-art medical institution offering a wide range of medical services to all international peacekeeping organizations in Israel: UNDOF, UN, UNIFIL, UNTSO & MFO. 

Herzliya Medical Center cooperates with organizations in the U.S. and other organizations worldwide since 1984. The latter have chosen to cooperate with the Herzliya Medical Center for the latest generation of medical services including: state-of-the-art diagnostic facilities, modern laboratories, advanced imaging institutes, reputable physicians and highly trained surgeons , exclusive hospitalization standards, first class rehabilitation services. 

Since 1999, U.N. and UNDOF chose the private hospital at Herzliya Medical Center (HMC), Israel's first healthcare provider. The assessment includes the level of medical assistance provided, physician qualifications, operating room standards, and intensive care unit. Herzliya Medical Center is located in Herzliya, an attractive seaside town with a stunning beach. The convenient location of the hospital allows employees in U.N. to arrive in southern and northern Israel in a few hours.

Centrul Medical Herzliya Israel

A symbol of excellence in medicine, Liv Hospital Istanbul combines the quality of care services with the high level of training of the team experienced by specialists, surgeons and nurses.
The center has the most advanced methods of diagnosis and treatment, using the latest equipment and technology.

Wiener Privatklinik, the largest private hospital in Vienna, dating back to 1871, set the goal of providing patients with first-class medical expertise and an individualized care center for patients – all delivered in a sophisticated ambience. Due to the proximity of the University Hospital, WPK is the seat of the most renowned medical experts who teach and practice at the University Clinics. This guarantees our patients evidence-based services, state-of-the-art technology and personalized care. The hospital has 145 beds, an operator block with 4 operating rooms, advanced imaging services (the only private hospital in Vienna with PET CT and nuclear medicine), physiotherapy and medical recovery at international standards. The medical team consists of over 250 reputable Viennese experts who apply an interdisciplinary approach to each case.

wiener privatklinik 2

Assuta is Israel’s largest and leading private medical services center, comprising eleven clinics and hospitals across Israel and providing innovative surgeries and diagnostic procedures in all fields of medicine, including cardiology, oncology, gynecology, urology and more. Assuta Hospital in Tel-Aviv was established in 1934, and over the past 70 years has become renowned as the most advanced hospital in the Middle East. Assuta specialists and surgeons undergo a thorough selection process, which means at Assuta you can expect the highest medical and professional standards. Assuta employs the latest cutting-edge technologies both from Israel and abroad. Our senior physicians possess solid experience in the implementation of modern technologies and techniques, so you have a choice of the most advanced treatment that is suitable for you. The use of modern technologies, devices and prosthetic materials minimizes both the duration of the surgery and the recovery period, adding further to the patient’s quality of life.
Spitalul Assuta din Tel-Aviv a fost infiintat in 1934, iar in ultimii 70 de ani a devenit renumit ca fiind cel mai avansat spital din Orientul Mijlociu.

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